SESSION I: Future Astrophysical Facilities Radio FacilitiesR. EkersATNF, Sydney, AustraliaFive decades ago, astronomers finally broke free of the boundaries of light when a new science, radio astronomy, was born. This new way of 'seeing' rapidly uncovered a range of unexpected objects in the cosmos. This was our first view of the non-thermal universe, and our first unobscured view of the universe. In its short life, radio astronomy has had an unequalled record of discovery, including four Nobel prizes: Big-Bang radiation, neutron stars, aperture synthesis and gravitational radiation. New technologies now make it possible to construct new and upgraded radio wavelength arrays which will provide a powerful new generation of facilities. Radio telescopes such as the SKA together with the upgraded VLA will have orders of magnitude greater sensitivity than existing facilities. They will be able to study thermal and non-thermal emission from a wide range of astrophysical phenomena throughout the universe as well as greatly extending the range of unique science accessible at radio wavelengths. Millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy facilitiesJ. CernicharoIEM, MadridI will present the future observatories Herschel and ALMA and their capacities for the observation of the Universe in the wavelength range 60-3000 microns. From the solar system to the most distant galaxies, both instruments will allow to observe the cold gas and dust with an excellent frequency coverage and with very high angular resolution. Herschel will be particularly well equipped to study the water vapour emission/absorption in star forming regions and in circumstellar envelopes. I will discuss the complementarity of ALMA in studying water vapour at 183.31 and 325 GHz. In particular I will analyze the possibility to search with ALMA for H2O emission at these frequencies in nearby galaxies, AGNs and ULIRGs (22 GHz H2O megamaser galaxies). The capacity of Herschel and ALMA to study the chemical evolution of molecular clouds will be also presented. The possible synergy between both instruments in many scientific areas will be analyzed in this talk. I will also present some ground based facilities that are now operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths and that will be operating during the early phases of the Herschel satellite and the ALMA interferometer. High-Energy Astronomy FacilitiesGuenther HasingerMPE GarchingThe current generation of working high-energy observatories, in particular the NASA Great Observatory Chandra and the ESA Cornerstone mission XMM-Newton in the X-ray range and the ESA Gamma ray mission integral are providing exciting results covering all fields of astrophysics, but in particular about black holes, clusters of galaxies and the large scale structure of the cosmos, as well as the creation of the elements. Large X-ray facilities of the next decade are planned in global coordination: the X-ray Evolving Universe Spectroscopy mission (XEUS) by ESA/JAXA and the Constellation-X mission (NASA). Intermediate-size, specialised missions are prepared or planned in an international context. I will give an overview and discuss these missions. Plans for Gamma ray astronomy are discussed in an accompanying paper. Future optical and near-infrared telescopesR. GilmozziESOI will briefly review the scientific drives for the next generation of ground and space optical-near infrared telescopes, and the synergy that they will create. I will report on the status of various projects, concentrating on the similarities and differences in the chosen technological solutions, and on the challenges that still lie ahead and what scope exists for collaboration in tackling them. Although I will try to be as complete as possible, I will describe in more detail the status of JWST, GSMT/CELT and OWL. Gravitational wave astronomyK. DanzmannMax-Planck-Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute) and University of HannoverCurrently, several large laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors (LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600, TAMA) are beginning to make observations in the audio frequency band from a few Hz to a few kHz. Experimental work for the LISA space-based detector to be launched in 2012 has commenced this year to open the low-frequency band from 0.1 mHz to 1 Hz. I will give an overview of status and prospects of this emerging field. SESSION II: Fundamental Physics and Cosmology Answering fundamental questions in physics with next-generation telescopesS. RawlingsOxford AstrophysicsIt is hard to imagine a more pressing question in physics than "what is the nature of the dominant form of energy in the Universe?" I will review the experiments made possible by next-generation telescopes which will allow the most stringent measurements of this dark energy. I will also review other experiments with the promise of telling us something radically new about the Universe, or the physics that describes it. Fundamental physics with the SKA: Strong-field tests of gravity using pulsars and black holesMichael KramerJodrell Bank Observatory (University of Manchester)The SKA will be unique in its capabilities in addressing some of the yet-unanswered questions in fundamental physics. One of the most fundamental questions remaining is whether Einstein's theory is the last word in our understanding of gravity or not. General relativity (GR) has to date passed all observational tests with flying colours. Solar system tests of GR are made under weak-field conditions, and even the existing binary pulsar tests only begin to approach the strong-field regime. As I will demonstrate in my talk, the SKA is capable of providing the important definite answers to fundamental questions such as: can GR correctly describe the ultra-strong field limit, are its predictions for black holes correct, and is the cosmos filled with a gravitational wave background? About 50 years after the discovery of pulsars marked the beginning of a new era in fundamental physics, pulsars observed with the SKA promise to transform our understanding of gravitational physics. Constraining Variations in the Fundamental Constants with the SKAS. J. CurranUniversity of New South WalesAlthough presently controversial, some recent detailed studies of the relative positions of heavy element optical transitions and comparison with present day wavelengths suggest that the fine structure constant, $\alpha\equiv e^2/\hbar c$, may have evolved with time. Due to the different $\alpha$-dependences of the Coulombic and magnetic moment interactions, comparison of atomic optical, H{\sc \,i} 21-cm and molecular millimetre transitions can yield at least an order of magnitude in precision over the purely optical results. This, however, is severely limited by the low number of redshifted systems exhibiting H{\sc \,i} and optical/rotational absorption currently known. Here we discuss how, with its unprecedented sensitivity and large tuning range, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is expected to significantly increase the number of known high redshift radio absorbers, thus greatly improving measurements of the variation in the fine structure constant and electron-to-proton mass ratio in the early Universe. CMB polarization and early universe physicsJ.L. PugetInstitut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, FranceThe polarization of CMB anisotropies on lmarge scale is one of the most powerful tool identified today to constrain the physics of the early universe. This is particularly true for inflation and the physics which could give rise to it. The presently planned experiments are limited by sensitivity when temperature anisotropies measurements will be limited only by fundamental limits when Planck flies. Future experiments for polarisation limited only by the ability to remove foregrounds are being studied and will be discussed. Low to Medium Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy: Status and PerspectivesGottfried KanbachMax-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, GarchingThe fundamental cosmic processes of nucleosynthesis, radioactivity and acceleration of cosmic rays are based on two natural energy scales: the nuclear binding energy up to about 8 MeV and the rest mass of the electron. Low to medium energy gamma-ray astronomy offers therefore the most direct observational access to sites of steady and explosive nucleosynthesis, interstellar radioactive debris, and the acceleration of cosmic ray particles. We present a short summary of the current status of low energy gamma-ray astronomy. A severe deficiency of observational sensitivity in the MeV range exists, and will remain in the future, unless advanced instruments are developed. This 'sensitivity gap' will limit multiwavelength astrophysics not only in its attempts to bridge the wide interval between the mostly thermal hard X-ray range and the high energy non-thermal GeV/TeV bands, but also in the understanding of physics unique to the MeV range. We describe the present efforts to develop the next generation of instruments sensitive between several 100 keV and 10's of MeV and the plans for a future Advanced Compton Telescope project. The evolution of the cosmic supernova rate M. Della Valle1, R. Gilmozzi2, N. Panagia3, J. Bergeron4, P. Madau5, J. Spyromilio2, P. Dierickx2(1) -- Arcetri-Firenze, (2) -- ESO, (3) -- ESA/STScI, (4) -- IAP, (5) -- UCSCThe detection and the study of high-z SNe is important for at least two reasons: \newline a) Their use as calibrated' standard candles in the local universe (both SNe-Ia and SNe-II) provides a direct measurement of $H_0$ whereas their detection at $z>0.3$ allows to measure $q_0$ and to probe the different cosmological models; \newline b) The evolution of the cosmic SN rate provides a direct measurement of the cosmic star formation rate. \newline This talk will illustrate the impact that the use of an ELT can have on the latter issue. SKA and the Magnetic UniverseRainer Beck1, Bryan Gaensler2(1)- MPIfR Bonn, (2) - CfA CambridgeThe origin of magnetic fields is still an open problem in fundamental physics and astrophysics. Measurements of polarized radio synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures (RM) reveal three-dimensional maps of the strength, structure and turbulent properties of the magnetic field. The unique sensitivity and resolution of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) will allow us to characterize the geometry and evolution of magnetic fields in galaxies, clusters and the IGM from high redshifts through to the present, to determine whether there is a connection between the formation of magnetic fields and the formation of structure in the early Universe, and to provide solid constraints on when and how the first magnetic fields in the Universe were generated. Even the empty'' space may be magnetized, either by outflows from galaxies, by relic lobes of radio galaxies, or as part of the cosmic web'' structure. This intergalactic magnetic field plays an important role as the likely seed for field amplification in galaxies and clusters, and it may trace and regulate structure formation in the early Universe. The discovery of such a cosmic field is feasible with the SKA and would be a major step in understanding the Magnetic Universe. SESSION III: High-redshift Universe, Galaxies, Galaxy Evolution The high redshift Universe and the formation and evoluion of galaxiesSimon LillyETHZ, GeneveOur ability to observe the Universe at substantial look-back times and thereby directly observe the formation and evolution of galaxies and other large structures is a rather profound one. The resulting increase in humanity's "horizons" in space and time over the last 20-30 years may rank with many of the great revolutions in science. I will attempt to review what we know and especially what we do not know about the galaxy population at high redshift, focussing on those open questions that could plausibly be answered with the broad suite of new facilities that are now planned. Frontier Science Enabled by a Giant Segmented Mirror TelescopeR.P. KudritzkiInstitute for Astronomy, University of HawaiiThe unique challenge of astronomy in the 21st century is to study the "evolution of the universe in order to relate causally the physical conditions during the Big bang to the development of RNA and DNA" (Riccardo Giacconi, 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics). A 20m to 30m telescope will provide capability to meet this challenge.It will, for the first time, permit observations of hundreds of extra-solar giant planets, the disks from which planetary systems take form, the building blocks of galaxies and the process of galaxy assembly, the early evolution of chemical elements heavier than helium, and the emergence of large scale structure as mapped by galaxies and intergalactic gas during the first billion years following the Big Bang. This paper gives a summary of the work done by the GSMT Science Working Group (SWG). The SWG was formed in July 2002 by NOAO following a suggestion by the NSF Division of Astronomical Sciences. The primary focus of the SWG, so far, has been the discussion the forefront astrophysical problems likely to emerge over the next decade, the science potentially enabled by next generation telescopes, design options that can achieve that potential, and technologies that must be advanced or developed in order to realize viable telescopes at acceptable costs. Overview of the Science Case for a 50-100m Extremely Large TelescopeIsobel HookUniversity of OxfordWe present an overview of the science case for a ground-based 50-100m Extremely Large Telescope. This was the subject of an OPTICON-sponsored meeting in Marseilles, France in November 2003. Four key scientific themes were identified by the participants: Terrestrial planets in extra-solar systems; Stellar populations across the Universe; Building galaxies since the darkest ages; The first objects and re-ionisation structure of the Universe. Although by no means an exhaustive list of science areas in which ELT will have a great impact, these cases provide examples where an ELT can make a dramatic advance in our understanding of the Universe around us. Here were describe these and other science themes and the challenging demands they place on ELT performance. See http://www-astro.physics.ox.ac.uk/~imh/ELT/ for more information, including the full list of participants in this work. Probing the Growth and Evolution of Galaxies with the ELTMatthew D. LehnertMPE-GarchingOne of the major goals of astrophysics is to map the distribution and growth of both the baryonic and dark matter components of galaxies at moderate to high redshift (z=1-5). I discuss how this can be accomplished with the ELT by mapping out the spatially resolved kinematics, star-formation, and chemical abundances of galaxies as well as measuring the kinematics of satellite objects -- both their internal kinematics and their velocity relative to the most massive component. Direct measurements of the evolution of the mass, angular momentum, and star-formation history of galaxies as a function of galaxy radius and epoch will provide critical constraints on our understanding of galaxy evolution. New Experimental Possibilities and New Problems in CMB Research and Observations of Clusters of GalaxiesR. SunyaevMax Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, GermanyThe tremendous increase in the sensitivity of microwave and X-ray bolometers of the Planck Surveyor spacecraft, Atacama Cosmology, APEX, and South Pole telescopes and ASTRO-E2 X-Ray Observatory permits theoreticians to think about completely new ways to study chemical evolution and the ionization history of our universe. These instruments under construction will permit us to measure peculiar velocities of clusters of galaxies and to investigate the internal motion and nature of turbulence in clusters of galaxies. Observations of the first galaxies: lessons learned for future ground based large telescopesM. Bremer1, J. Bergeron2, M. Lehnert3, I. Hook4(1) -- Bristol University, (2) -- Institute d'Astrophysiquie de Paris, (3) -- MPE, Garching, (4) -- Oxford UniversityWe will review observations of the highest redshift galaxies, quasars, GRBs and SNe in the context of the capabilities of future ground-based large telescopes. I will discuss which observations are better carried out from space and how the properties and evolution of these objects drive instrumentation choices for any future large telescopes. The High Redshift Universe as Seen by the Allen Telescope ArrayGeoffrey C. BowerUC BerkeleyThe ATA is a new radio telescope operating at cm wavelengths. Its wide field of view and continuous frequency coverage make it an excellent instrument for surveys of both continuum and line sources. I will discuss in detail two goals of the ATA: an HI counterpart to the Sloane Digital Sky Survey; and surveys for transient sources. SESSION IV: AGN and Compact Objects AGN studies on the crossroads of astrophysicsJ.A. Zensus, A.P. LobanovMax-Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieOver the last five decades, AGN studies have produced a number of spectacular examples of synergies and multifaceted approaches in astrophysics. The field of AGN research now spans the entire spectral range and covers more than twelve orders of magnitude in the spatial and temporal domains. The next generation of astrophysical facilities will open up new possibilities for AGN studies, especially in the areas of high-resolution and high-fidelity imaging and spectroscopy of nuclear regions in the X-ray, optical, and radio bands. These studies will address in detail a number of critical issues in AGN research such as processes in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes, physical conditions of broad-line and narrow-line regions, formation and evolution of accretion disks and relativistic outflows, and the connection between nuclear activity and galaxy evolution. These aspects of future AGN studies will be discussed in this review. New Frontiers in AGN Physics - The X-ray Perspective Th. Boller MPE Garching After 4 years of dedicated service from the new generation of X-ray telescopes, XMM-Newton and Chandra, we are at the point to generalize the AGN physics deduced from numerous individual observations. The talk will review the basic open questions posed by earlier X-ray missions which have now been answered as well as new questions which still require further investigation. The topics critically discussed will include: the physics of the innermost region of AGN, the starburst-AGN connection, new aspects of the Seyfert unification, new insights into the galaxy interaction processes, supermassive and stellar-mass black hole analogies, the chemical composition and its implications for cosmology. Deep Radio Surveys and the SKA K. I. KellermannNRAOThe VLA has been used to survey the HDFN, the CDFS, and SA13 down to rms noise levels as low as 2 microJy. These surveys, which complement the wealth of optical, IR, and X-ray data which cover these fields, indicate that although the radio emission at microJy levels is increasingly due to star forming activity, an AGN component is not uncommon. We discuss the implications of the VLA surveys for the even deeper surveys which will be possible with the SKA including the effects of confusion which may limit the performance of the SKA unless very long baselines, up to thousands of kilometers are used. Even then, VLA and MERLIN observations indicate that the typical angular size of microJy sources is about an arcsecond. If this persists at nanoJy levels, the SKA may be limited by natural confusion, independent of its angular resolution. Space-borne radio astronomy in the era of LOFAR, ALMA and SKAL.I.Gurvits1, H.Hirabayashi21 -- JIVE, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; 2 -- ISAS, Sagamihara, JapanLOFAR, ALMA and SKA will open up new ranges in sensitivity, frequency coverage, spectral and temporal resolution of radio astronomy studies. Angular resolution of these new radio telescopes will be defined by their sizes, ultimately limited by the size of Earth. Radical sharpening of the `radio view'' at the Universe can be achieved by extending apertures (baselines) of radio astronomy facilities beyond the planetary scale. We analyze possible orbital extensions of Earth-based radio telescopes using the first dedicated Space VLBI mission VSOP as a benchmark. We begin from a brief review of scientific tasks which require angular resolution higher than routinely available at present. We also consider possible technical implementation of space-borne radio telescopes at various frequency domains. As a conclusion of our analysis we underline scientific and technological components of the three major Earth-based radio astronomy facilities which should be seen as bridges to their future orbital extensions. eVLBI: A Wide-field, Imaging instrument with Milliarcsecond Resolution and MicroJy SensitivityM.A. Garrett1, J.W. Wrobel2, R. Morganti3(1) - JIVE, (2) - NRAO, (3) - ASTRONOver the last 18 months, significant progress has been made in connecting together the largest radio telescopes in Europe via optical fibres. This technique, known as eVLBI, promises to transform VLBI into a real-time instrument, dramatically improving the reliability, flexibility and performance of current arrays, such as the European VLBI Network (EVN). In this presentation we review current progress in this area and consider future (short-term) developments. We also look forward to the scientific return of eVLBI, focussing in this presentation, on eVLBI's contribution to deep field studies of faint and cosmologically distant extragalactic radio sources. In addition, to unravelling the nature of these distant systems, eVLBI can provide milliarcsecond astrometric precision to ensure accurate multi-wavelength image registration. Results from observations of AGNs with the H.E.S.S. telescope system and Future plansMichael Punch for the H.E.S.S. collaboration PCC/APC, Collège de FranceThe H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) phase I is comprised of four Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, for observation of galactic and cosmic sources of very high energy gamma rays. Its installation in the Khomas highlands, Namibia has been completed in December, 2003. The first of these telescopes was installed in June 2003, and data-taking has proceeded since that time. The HESS telescope system provides a significant improvement in sensitivity and a threshold for detection below that of previous Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. The characteristics for the phase-I will be presented, together with plans for phase-II of the experiment, comprised of a large telescope in the centre of the current phase-I providing a lowered threshold and increased sensitivity. We can observe AGNs up to redshift 0.5 with HESS and 2-3 with HESS Phase-2, which provides a unique capability for study of spectral and temporal characteristics on timescales of several hours or even less than 1 h (depending on the strength of flares). We will present the first results from a number of southern AGN observed during the installation of the phase-I, in particular concerning the detection and spectral properties of the AGN PKS2155$-$305. The dust and gas content of quasars in the early universePierre Cox1, F. Bertoldi2, C.L. Carilli3, A. Omont4, A. Beelen1, F. Walter3, K.M. Menten21 -- Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France; 2 -- Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany; 3 -- NRAO, Socorro, USA; 4 -- IAP, Paris, FranceDirect observations of millimeter and submillimeter emission from high-redshift quasars and galaxies are amongst the most recent to be applied to the study of galaxy evolution. They have opened a new window in our understanding of the nature of these gas- and dust-rich massive, luminous systems. We will summarize results from recent surveys done at millimeter wavelengths of about 150 high redshift (1.5
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