Science publications in refereed journals based on observations with GREAT

Principal Investigator

Title of Science Contribution


A.M. Jacob



S. Kabanovic


H. Beuther


W.D. Reach

HyGAL: Characterizing the Galactic ISM with observations of hybrides and

other small molecules - I. Survey description and a first look toward W3(OH),

W3 IRS5 and NGC 7538 IRS1

Self-absorption in [CII], 12CO, and H I in RCW120. Building up a geometrical

and physical model of the region

FEEDBACK from the NGC7538 HII region


Ionized carbon around IRC+10216


ApJ accepted



A&A 659, 36


A&A 659, 77


ApJ accepted (2021)

Y.-L. YangAtomic Shocks in the Outflow of L1551 IRS 5 Identified with SOFIA-upGREAT Observations of [OI]ApJ accepted (2021)
T. CsengeriSOFIA/GREAT observations of OD and OH rotational lines towards high-mass star forming regionsA&A accepted (2021)
G. HarperSOFIA upGREAT/FIFI-LS Emission-line Observations of Betelgeuse during the Great Dimming of 2019/2020AJ 162, 246 (2021)
A.I. HarrisSOFIA-upGREAT Imaging Spectroscopy of the [C II] 158 μm Fine-structure Line of the Sgr B Region in the Galactic CenterApJ 921, 33 (2021)
N. SchneiderGlobules and pillars in Cygnus X. III. Herschel and upGREAT/SOFIA far-infrared spectroscopy of the globule IRAS 20319+3958 in Cygnus XA&A 653, 108 (2021)
R. HigginsObservation and calibration strategies for large-scale multi-beam velocity-resolved mapping of the [CII] emission in the Orion molecular cloudA&A 652, 77 (2021)
D.A. NeufeldThe chemistry of chlorine-bearing species in the diffuse interstellar medium, and new SOFIA/GREAT observations of HCl+ApJ 917, 104 (2021)

Goldsmith, P.F.

Interstellar Cloud Conditions Based on 63 μm [O I] Emission and Absorption in W3

ApJ 916, 6 (2021)

W.D. Langer

The dense warm ionized medium in the inner Galaxy

A&A 651, 59(2021)

E. Tarantino

Characterizing the Multi-Phase Origin of [CII] Emission in M101 and NGC 6946 with Velocity Resolved Spectroscopy

ApJ 915, 92 (2021)

M. Tiwari

SOFIA FEEDBACK survey: exploring the dynamics of the stellar wind driven shell of RCW 49

ApJ 914, 117 (2021)

M. Luisi

Stellar feedback and triggered star formation in the prototypical bubble RWC 120

Sci. Adv. 7, eabe9511 (2021)

A.M. Jacob

The CH radical at radio wavelengths: Revisiting emission in the 3.3 GHz ground state lines

A&A in press (2021)

H. Richter

Direct measurements of atomic oxygen in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using terahertz heterodyne spectroscopy

Communications Earth & Env 2, 19 (2021)

Mookerjea, B.

The distribution of ionized, atomic and PDR gas around S1 in Rho Ophiuchus

A&A in press (2021)

O. Nayak

Stellar Feedback on the Earliest Stage of Massive Star Formation

ApJ 907, 106 (2021)

J.R. Goicoechea

Bottlenecks to interstellar sulfur chemistry. Sulfur-bearing hydrides in UV-illuminated gas and grains

A&A 647, 10 (2021)

D.A. Neufeld

Terahertz Water Masers: II. Further SOFIA/GREAT Detections toward Circumstellar Outflows, and a Multitransition Analysis

ApJ 907, 42 (2020)

G. Sandell

NGC7538 IRS1 - an O star driving an ionized jet and giant N-S outflow

ApJ 904, 139 (2020)

A.M. Jacob

Extending the view of ArHchemistry in diffuse clouds

A&A 643, 91 (2020)

L. Bonne

Dense gas formation in the Musca filament due to the dissipation of a supersonic converging flow

A&A 641, 17 (2020)

M.A. Siebert

A Search for Light Hydrides in the Envelopes of Evolved Stars

ApJ 901, 22 (2020)

J.L. Pineda

A SOFIA Survey of [CII] in the galaxy M51 II. [CII] and CO kinematics across spiral arms

ApJ 900, 132 (2020)

M.S. Kirsanova

The PDR structure and kinematics around the compact H II regions S235 A and S235 C with [C II], [13C II], [O I] and HCO+ line profiles

MNRAS 497, 2651 (2020)

W. Lim

Star cluster formation in Orion A

PASJ 73, S239 (2021)

N. Schneider

FEEDBACK: a SOFIA legacy program to study stellar feedback in regions of massive star formation

PASP 132, 104301 (2020)

A.M. Jacob

First detection of 13CH in the interstellar medium

A&A 640, 125 (2020)

C.H.M. Pabst

Expanding bubbles in Orion A: [C II] observations of M 42, M 43, and NGC 1977

A&A 639, 2 (2020)

J.R. Goicoechea

Molecular globules in the Veil bubble of Orion. IRAM 30 m 12CO, 13CO, and C18O (2-1) expanded maps of Orion A

A&A 639, 1 (2020)

D.A. Neufeld

Detection of Vibrational Emissions from the Helium Hydride Ion (HeH+) in the PN NGC7027

ApJ 894, 37 (2020)

C. Guevara

[CII] 158 µm self-absorption and optical depth effects

A&A 636, 16 (2020)

T.F. Giesen

First detection of the carbon chain molecules 13CCC and C13CC towards SgrB2(M)

A&A 633, 120 (2020)

V. Lebouteiller

Physical conditions in the gas phases of the giant H II region LMC-N 11. II. Origin of [C II] and fraction of CO-dark gas

A&A 632, 106 (2019)

A.M. Jacob

Fingerprinting the effects of hyperfine structure on CH and OH far infrared spectra using Wiener filter deconvolution

A&A 632, 60 (2020)

Y. Okada

First detection of [13CII] in the Large Magellanic Cloud

A&A 631, L12 (2019)

J.L. Pineda

Electron Densities and Nitrogen Abundances in Ionized Gas Derived using [NII] Fine-structure...

ApJ 886, 1 (2019)

B. Mookerjea

Opening the Treasure Chest in Carina

A&A 626, 131 (2019)

D.C. Lis

Terrestrial deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio in water in hyperactive comets

A&A 625, L5 (2019)

R. Güsten

Astrophysical detection of the helium hydride ion HeH+

Nature 568, 357 (2019)

C. Pabst

Disruption of the Orion molecular core 1 by wind from the massive star θ1 Orionis C

Nature 565, 618 (2019)

Y. Okada

Velocity profiles of [CII], [CI], CO and [OI] and physical conditions ... in the Large Magellanic Cloud

A&A 621, 62 (2019)

J. Pineda

A SOFIA Survey of [C II] in the Galaxy M51. I. [C II] as a Tracer of Star Formation

ApJ 869, L30 (2018)

J.P. Pérez-Beaupuits

A Thorough view of the nuclear region of NGC 253 combined Herschel, SOFIA and APEX dataset

ApJ 860, 23 (2018)

H. Andrews

Whipping IC 63/IC 59

A&A 619, 170 (2018)

G. Sandell

Velocity resolved [OI] 63 microns emission in the HD 50138 circumstellar disk

ApJ 864, 104 (2018)

W. Langer

The nature of molecular cloud boundary layers from SOFIA [OI] observations

A&A 617, 94 (2018)

N. Schneider

Anatomy of the massive star-forming region S106

A&A 617, 45 (2018)

B. Mookerjea

C+ distribution around S1 in ρ Ophiuchi

A&A 616, 31 (2018)

M. Tiwari

Unveiling the remarkable photo dissociation region in M8

A&A 615, 158 (2018)

T.G. Bisbas

The inspection of Star Cluster Formation Revealed by [CII] Emission Around an Infrared Dark

MNRAS 478, 54 (2018)

J. Bally

Kinematics of the Horsehead Nebula and IC 434 Ionization Front in CO and C+

AJ 155, 80 (2018)

P.F. Goldsmith

Velocity-resolved [CII] Emission from Cold Diffuse Clouds in the interstellar Medium

ApJ 856, 96 (2018)

K.E. Jameson

First Results from the Herschel and ALMA Spectroscopic Surveys of the SMC: The Relationship

ApJ 853 111 (2018)

H. Wiesemeyer

Unveiling the chemistry of interstellar CH. Spectroscopy of the 2 THz N = 2–1 ground state line

A&A 612, 37 (2018)

S.A. Levshakov

[C I], [C II] and CO emission lines as a probe for α variations at low and high redshifts

MNRAS 471, 2143 (2017)

W.D. Langer

Ionized gas in the Scutum spiral arm as traced in [N II]  and [C II]

A&A 607, 59 (2017)

F. Herpin

First detection of a THz water maser in NGC 7538-IRS1 with SOFIA and new 22 GHz e-MERLIN

A&A 606, 52 (2017)

C.H.M. Pabst

[C II] emission from L1630 in the Orion B molecular Cloud

A&A 606, 29 (2017)

D.A. Neufeld

SOFIA/GREAT Discovery of Terahertz Water Masers

ApJ 843, 94 (2017)

A. Gusdorf

Nature of shocks revealed by SOFIA OI observations in the Cepheurs E protostellar outflow

A&A 602, 8 (2017)

J. Harju

Detection of Interstellar Ortho-D2H+ with SOFIA

ApJ 840, 63 (2017)

L.E. Kristensen

Oxygen budget in low-mass protostars: the NGC 1333-IRAS4A shock observed in [OI] at 63µm

A&A 601, 4 (2017)

C.B. Glück

SOFIA/GREAT [C II] observations in nearly clouds near the lines of sight towards B0355+508 and B0212+735

A&A 600, 94 (2017)

K. Fahrion

Disentangling the ISM phases of the dwarf galaxy NGC 4212 using [C II] SOFIA/GREAT

A&A 599, 9 (2017)

J. Rho

Discovery of Broad Molecular Lines and Shocked Molecular Hydrogen from G357.7+0.3

ApJ 834, 12 (2017)

W.J.G. de Blok

Comparing [C II], HI, and CO Dynamics of Nearby Galaxies

AJ 152, 51 (2016)

P.F. Goldsmith

L1599B: loud Envelope and C+ Emission in a Region of Moderately Enhanced Radiation Field

ApJ 824, 141 (2016)

M. Röllig

[C II] 158 µm and [N II] 205 µm emission from IC 342. Disentangling the emission from ionized

A&A 591, 33 (2016)

M. Requena

Carbon gas in SMC low-metallicity star-forming regions

A&A 589, 28 (2016)

F. Wyrowski

Infall through the evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps

A&A 585, 149 (2016)

H. Wiesemeyer

Far-infrared study of tracers of oxygen chemistry in diffuse clouds

A&A 585, 76 (2016)

A. Gusdorf

Challenging shock models with SOFIA OH observations in the high-mass star-forming region

A&A 585, 45 (2016)

S. Leurini

Spectroscopically resolbed far-IF observations of the massive star-forming region G5.89-0.39

A&A 584, 70 (2015)

J.P. Pérez-Beaupuits

Disentangling the excitation conditions of the dense gas in M17 SW

A&A 583,107 (2015)

B. Lefloch

The structure of the Cepheus E Protostellar outflow: The jet, the bowshock and the cavity

A&A 581, 4 (2015)

L. Rezac

First detection of the 63 µm atomic oxygen line in the thermosphere of Mars with GREAT/SOFIA

A&A 580,10 (2015)

V. Ossenkopf

Fine-structure line deficit in S 140

A&A 580, 83 (2015)

Y. Okada

Velocity resolved [C II], [C I], and CO observations of the N159 star-forming region the Large

A&A 580, 54 (2015)

G. Sandell

High spectral and spatial resolution observations of the PDR emission in the NGC 2023 reflection

A&A 578, 41 (2015)

D.A. Neufeld

Sulphur-bearing  molecules in diffuse molecular clouds: new results from SOFIA/GREAT and the

A&A 577, 49 (2015)

W.D. Langer

Ionized gas at the edge of the central molecular zone

A&A 576, 1 (2015)

J.P. Pérez-Beaupuits

Detection of a large fraction of atomic gas not associated with star-forming material in M17 SW*

A&A 575, 9 (2015)

A. Gusdorf

Impacts of pure shocks in the BHR71 bipolar outflow

A&A 575, 98 (2015)

H. Beuther

Carbon in different phases ([CII], [CI], and CO) in infrared dark clouds: Cloud formation signatures

A&A 571, 53 (2014)

S. Brünken

H2D+ observations give an age of at least one million years for a cloud core forming Sun-like stars

Nature 516, 219 (2014)

E. O’Gorman

CARMA CO(J=2-1) Observations of the Circumstellar Envelope of Betelgeuse

AJ 144, 36 (2012)

E.T. Young

Early Science with SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

ApJ 749, 17 (2012)

T. Csengeri

SOFIA observations of far infrared hydroxyl emission toward ultra-compact HII/OH maser regions

A&A 542, L8 (2012)

J. Eislöffel

SOFIA observations of CO(12 11) emission along the L1157 bipolar outflow

A&A 542, L11 (2012)

A. Gomez

High-J CO emission in the Cepheus E protostellar outflow observed with SOFIA/GREAT

A&A 542, L9 (2012)

U. Graf

[12CII] and [13 CII] 158 m emission from NGC 2024: Large column densities of ionized carbon

A&A 542, L16 (2012)

A. Gusdorf

Probing MHD Shocks with High-J CO Observations: W28F

A&A 542, L19 (2012)

B. Mookerjea

The structure of hot gas in Cepheus B

A&A 542, L17 (2012)

D. Neufeld

Discovery of interstellar mercapto radicals (SH) with the GREAT instrument on SOFIA

A&A 542, L6 (2012)

Y. Okada

Dynamics and PDR properties in IC1396A

A&A 542, L10 (2012)

A.I. Gomez-Ruiz

High-J CO emission in the Cepheus E protostellar outflow observed with SOFIA/GREAT

A&A 542, 9 (2012)

B. Parise

Detection of OD towards the low-mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422

A&A 542, L5 (2012)

J.-P. Perez-Beaupuits

The ionized and hot gas in M17 SW: SOFIA/GREAT THz observations of [C II] and 12CO J=13-12

A&A 542, L13 (2012)

M. Requena

GREAT confirms transient nature of the Circumnuclear Disk

A&A 542, L21 (2012)

M. Röllig

[CII] gas in IC 342

A&A 542, L22 (2012)

R. Sahai

Probing the Mass and Structure of the Ring Nebula in Lyra with SOFIA/GREAT Observations &

A&A 542, L20 (2012)

G. Sandell

GREAT [CII] and CO observations of the BD+40°4124 region

A&A 542, L14 (2012)

N. Schneider

Globules and pillars seen in the [CII] 158 m line with SOFIA

A&A 542, L18 (2012)

R. Simon

SOFIA observations of S106: dynamics of the warm gas

A&A 542, L12 (2012)

H. Wiesemeyer

High-resolution absorption spectroscopy of the OH 2Π3/2 ground state line

A&A 542, L7 (2012)

F. Wyrowski

Terahertz ammonia absorption as a probe of infall in high-mass star forming clumps

A&A 542, L15 (2012)




Technical publications on GREAT in refereed journals

Principal Investigator

Title of Science Contribution


C.A. Durán4GREAT - a four-color receiver for high-resolution airborne terahertz spectroscopyIEEE Trans.THz Sci.Tech., in press (2020)
C. RisacherThe upGREAT dual frequency heterodyne arrays for SOFIAJAI 7 No 4, 1840014 (2018)

C. Risacher

The upGREAT 1.9 THz multi-pixel high resolution spectrometer for the SOFIA Observatory

A&A 595, 34 (2016)

C. Risacher

First Supra-THz Heterodyne Array Receivers for Astronomy With the SOFIA Observatory

ITTST 6, 199 (2016)

H. Richter

4.7-Thz Local Oscillator for the GREAT Heterodyne Spectrometer on SOFIA

ITTST 5, 539 (2015)

D. Buchel

4.7-THz Superconducting Hot Electron Bolometer Waveguide Mixer

ITTST 5, 207 (2015)

S. Heyminck

GREAT: the SOFIA high-frequency heterodyne instrument

A&A 542, L1 (2012)

P. Pütz

Terahertz hot electron bolometer waveguide mixers for GREAT

A&A 542, L2 (2012)

B. Klein

High-resolution wide-band Fast Fourier Transform Spectrometers

A&A 542, L3 (2012)

Xin Guan

GREAT/SOFIA atmospheric calibration

A&A 542, L4 (2012)

P. Pütz

NbTiN Hot Electron Bolometer Waveguide Mixers on Si3N4 Membranes at THz Frequencies

ITAS 21, 636 (2011)

S. Heyminck

GREAT: a first light instrument for SOFIA

SPIE 7014, 10 (2008)

U. Graf

GREAT: the German first light heterodyne instrument for SOFIA

SPIE 6275, 1 (2006)

R. Güsten

GREAT: The German Receiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies

SPIE 4857, 56 (2003)

R. Güsten

GREAT: the first-generation German heterodyne receiver for SOFIA

SPIE 4014, 23 (2000)


Public outreach articles on GREAT science results


Title of Science Contribution


J.-B. Veyrieras

HeH+ - On a trouvé la première molécule de l’Univers

Science & Vie 08-2020, 100 (2020)

T. Csengeri H. Wiesemeyer

La stratosphérique détection de l'hydrure d'hélium (text in French)

La Recherche 555, 44 (2020)

H. Wiesemeyer

SOFIA und der kosmische Materiekreislauf (text in German)

Nat.wiss. Rundschau 65, 511 (2012)




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